The Class (Entre les murs, 2008)

Director: Laurent Cantet


By Marilyn Ferdinand

Laurent Cantet doesn’t make a lot of films, but when he does, everyone should sit up and take notice. The only one of his four feature films I saw before The Class was Time Out (L’Emploi du temps, 2001). Loosely based on The Adversary (L’Adversaire), the gripping, true-crime book about Jean-Claude Romand, this absolutely brilliant film paints a mournful picture of a confused white-collar worker who lies and runs financial cons rather than admit to his family the shameful truth that he was fired. The Class, the first French film in 21 years to win the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival, is an equally enthralling film that deals in many ways with the same themes as Time Out. François Matin (François Bégaudeau, author of the book on which the film is based) is a middle-school French teacher who lies to himself and others about what kind of system he is part of to keep the house of cards that is an inner-city school from crashing down.

The film begins at the start of the school year with the school staff introducing themselves to each other by name, subject taught, and years of service at the school. One of the more experienced teachers goes over a new teacher’s class list, making comments like “Nice … Nice … Not nice … Nice” and so forth. From the very beginning, newcomers to the school—including us—are indoctrinated to label students and accept teachers’ perceptions. The rest of the film will be spent largely in François’ classroom, where his attempts to motivate and discipline his classroom will both succeed promisingly and fail miserably.


On the first day of class, François totals up how many minutes of the one-hour class are wasted—five minutes standing in line to get into the class, five minutes to sit down and pull out class materials, five minutes to settle down—and tells the class if they can’t get down to business quickly, they will be far behind other middle schools in Paris. Esméralda (Esméralda Ouertani) says the schools lie—classes aren’t really an hour long. François admits she’s right, that the classes are 55 minutes long. This is only one of the challenges, both large and petty, François will have to negotiate.


François’ school has a diverse student body, with students from former French colonies, such as Mali, Morocco, and St. Barts, mixing with other immigrant and white French students. World Cup loyalties have students participating in a classroom debate argue heatedly about their respective countries’ teams. A goth student named Arthur (Arthur Fogel) defends his look as others jeer, and François challenges his statement of individuality by saying that millions dress the same way as Arthur does.


François is not so sanguine about being called on his hair-splitting, however. During a staff meeting, the two student representatives giggle and talk without apparently listening to the comments of staff on the grades and recommendations for each student. They weren’t nearly as unattentive as the adults imagined, however; Esméralda has informed Souleymane (Franck Keïta), a chronically unprepared Malian jokester that François called him “limited.” François, angered at having Souleymane learn what he said, tells the girls that they behaved like skanks in the meeting. François tries to parse the difference between “being skanks” and “behaving like skanks” to an outraged class whose b.s. meter is in the red zone. Souleymane rises to leave class, hurt by François’ remark and angered at how unreasonable he is being with the girls. François tells him he can’t just leave class and tries to stop him; in the process, Souleymane’s backpack strikes Esméralda’s friend Khoumba (Rachel Régulier) and opens up a cut above her eye. François feels he has no choice but to hold an administrative hearing that 12 times out of 12 has resulted in the expulsion of a student, even though Souleymane’s friends say his father will send him back to Mali.

Souleymane’s far from the only student on a bubble—Chinese student Wei, a good student who predictably excels in math and science, may be deported along with his undocumented mother. Teachers are prepared to testify at her deportation hearing, but the same courtesy is not extended to Souleymane in his “deportation” hearing—as one teacher puts it, Souleymane’s lack of preparedness in class means, “he’s already left us.”


Teaching is not perceived to be an easy job. Sometimes teachers unlock the doors of interest in relatively indifferent students, but the system is set up not only to teach but to socialize. Multicultural student bodies complicate the development of an orderly society. François isn’t as hidebound as some of his more hardline colleagues, but when push literally comes to shove, François finds that his own cultural indoctrination goes deeper than he thought. He won’t abide insolence, but he fails to see how his own approach often fails to reach students. He is bewildered when Khoumba refuses to read aloud at his request, believing he has the right to make her do as he says, and at the letter she leaves in his locker that reveals her feelings that he is out to get her. Another student sits quietly during the whole film, looking sad and lost. She talks to François near the end of the term and says she hasn’t understood anything all year. He replies that her grades are fine, but she insists in desperation that she has learned nothing at all. What is it that she wants to learn, needs to learn? François and the school system he upholds have no idea.

This film, shot in handheld DV, is like a documentary on the life of this school. We never leave the school grounds. According to Cantet, “All the adolescents in the film were students at Françoise Dolto Junior High in Paris’ 20th arrondissement; all the teachers teach there. With the exception of Souleymane’s mother, whose role is the most fabricated, the parents in the film are those of the students in real life.” Yes, this is how a public school in Paris operates, but it is hard to say that it works all that well. The reasons for that aren’t always clear.

I was part of an interesting discussion on a feminist blog that called for the dismantlement of the school system. This is going to be a bit shocking to people not used to the language of radical feminism, so be forewarned:

Teaching—at least from the “actively benign” echelon on up—is about enlightenment. Schools are about education, i.e. appeasing the state through indoctrination with a male-generated, patriarchal canon. A teacher who so strongly identifies with her profession that she cannot or will not grasp the underlying patriarchal structure of the institution to which she has devoted herself may well be offended when I say “School? It’s gotta go!”; this is completely understandable and, of course, regrettable. Still. School? It’s gotta go.

I don’t call her a bad teacher. I don’t suggest that she isn’t making a difference in kids’ lives. I’m not even saying she isn’t managing to squeeze a little actual enlightenment in through the chinks. I aver only that, because the interests of the megatheocorporatocracy—which .. is the American school system’s governing body—are not served by an enlightened citizenry, there will be no enlightened citizenry.

I actually liked learning and still do. Although I’m not in favor of abolishing the classroom, school gave me some problems. Teacher’s pets, grades, competition, and most of all, learning the way the teachers insisted I learn—all these attributes of schooling created a lot of tension in me, a lot of rebellion, a sense that they were feeding me something (though I think it was a lot more than patriarchy) I didn’t think I was there to learn. I totally related to Souleymane’s delight when François posted his photo-laden self-portrait that used only captions as an example to the rest of the class—not the traditional essays language teachers always seem to love—and then his disappointment at being called “limited.” These moments may have been missed by François, but they certainly didn’t go unnoticed by me or many other people in the audience.

This film title’s literal translation is “between the walls.” According to Cantet, the title was changed for American distribution because “distributors were initially afraid of the image of prison that it could give to the film.” Interestingly, the feminist blog called schools “concentration camps,” and the writer was taken to task over that characterization. I wonder what the distributors’ excuse was?

  • Rick spoke:
    26th/02/2009 to 11:56 am

    What a great word. Gotta love radicals of any stripe.
    But you’re right: it’s not just the patriarchy that our schools teach, it’s indoctrination about our way of life, that benefits the few at the top at the expense of the many. And although I would disagree with the writer you quoted that the aim of teaching is enlightenment — the aim of teaching is whatever the designers of curriculae being taught design it to be — I think the distinction between enlightenment and education is right on. The people who actually run the country want folks educated with whatever will make them efficient factory fodder, or middle-management fodder, or designers of product, or writers of computer code.
    An “enlightened” populace — i.e., one that is on to them — is definitely not desired.
    Great piece, Marilyn.

  • Marilyn spoke:
    26th/02/2009 to 12:22 pm

    Thanks, Rick. Working where I do, I see the priorities a little before others do. About a year ago, the big thing was science/math/technology. I was getting books and videos comparing our country’s kids with those in India and China and finding that our kids want to be (shock!) graphic designers instead of engineers! We need to change that–NOW! The Gates Foundation is all about that emphasis. I refused to get on the bandwagon with my editorial choices. I believe in a balanced education for all, and if kids want to go the votech route, they can begin a specialized track in middle school that will help them emphasize the areas they need.

  • Marilyn spoke:
    26th/02/2009 to 12:24 pm

    BTW, I’m going to start coverage of CIMM Fest, a unique confluence of film and music Goatdog is connected with that begins March 5. François Bégaudeau will be attending, and I hope to get an interview with him.

  • Daniel spoke:
    2nd/03/2009 to 11:10 am

    A very thought-provoking review, Marilyn, and one that makes me think I’m more conservative than the average person when it comes to education. Though I’m no expert on the matter, I did spend three years teaching in an inner-city school that is very, very similar to the one in The Class. Watching it was a bizarrely familiar experience (literally, I know I said so many of those things) and I recommend it to teachers of any level, but especially those who are entering the “city” environment for the first time.
    While I do think many schools are in the business of teaching social hierarchy and selected histories, I still think there is something to be said about what Francois was trying to do (and what I was trying to do) with these marginalized students – prepare them for life outside the walls by teaching them in the “ways of the world”. Call that patriarchy or mega… if you want to – but I still believe that structure, etiquette and responsibility are vital components of our school systems. Most of the students I taught had either one or neither parent at home (and most didn’t speak English), so it was basically on our shoulders to “guide” them into society. There are many roles they can play in the future, and while votech is a fine option, sometimes I wonder if that isn’t implicitly enabling the “limited” mindset that’s already inherent in the school systems of so many cities.
    I’m become lost in my own point here, but I guess I’m trying to say that there are no easy answers to the situation, but like Francois, I stubbornly think that some “order” should part of any pedagogy.

  • Marilyn spoke:
    2nd/03/2009 to 11:19 am

    Daniel – I take your point, and I’m certainly for decorum – but more as a matter of respect than of crowd control, so to speak.
    I guess I have a problem with socialization because of what is being communicated – particularly hierarchy, which is a 100% patriarchal construct to me.
    As for votech, you misunderstood my comment. I don’t think people should be pushed into it. If it were up to business, liberal arts educations would vanish and we would all be in votech. What I meant was that schools shouldn’t be forced to choose science and math over the humanities; those who want to pursue the former (votech or not) should be able to choose it, not have it thrust on them because that’s what employers want.

  • Daniel spoke:
    2nd/03/2009 to 1:29 pm

    Yeah I think I knew what you meant about votech and unnecessarily mentioned when I was trying to make a different point (whatever that was, haha!).
    So without defending the patriarchal hierarchy that is often (I don’t think always) taught, I’m curious as to how students – in 2009 – can most effectively be enlightened outside of the institution of school?

  • Marilyn spoke:
    2nd/03/2009 to 1:55 pm

    The radical feminists think natural learning will take place. I’m not so sure. I’m not against school, I just think we need to have a radical, really radical, overhaul of school priorities and curriculum. No Child Left Behind was a confusing attempt at social engineering by forcing schools to teach to certain standards or lose funding. The Gates agenda was top of the list.
    The “hard” subjects need to be taught in a straightforward manner without social engineers like the creationists and abstinence-only crowds interfering. All subjects in the humanities should be considered core subjects. Funding should be independent of political considerations, that is, a constitutional guarantee with a funding formula that does not depend on property taxes, but rather provides an equitable student per capita distribution.

  • Marlene spoke:
    22nd/03/2015 to 3:35 am

    Very late, but I suddenly realized I’d never posted this, so let’s assume, “Better (even very!) late than never.

    First of all, I was bored out of my mind during the film. This probably
    is closely related to the fact that during the two weeks before seeing this film I had visited 12 student teachers in 11 different schools to advise and evaluate them. And here I was observing still another class during my vacation!

    Thisteacher would not have got a good assessment: he couldn’t control his
    class, he didn’t control his language, his courses did not seem to be
    very well structured or planned, it was difficult to know his objectives
    … And he didn’t even have the excuse that he was only student teacher!

    Clearly, a French teacher who by definition is interested in language and literature, has much better control of their language. You would never hear a French teacher speak like this. My son says that , at worst, a PE teacher might swear, but never at a student. Just at some inanimate object, that isn’t where he’d like it to be. And not anything so strong either.

    The students, too, were way out of line. and while I’ve seen some really
    difficult classes, I’ve never heard personal questions, that have
    nothing to do with the lesson or school be asked of the teacher.
    Usually, even the worst kids in the worst classes have limits.
    My son’s Biology teacher, says pretty much the same.

    We have to realize this is a fictional exagerration of an inter-city type school, which, by the way is not as bad as the suburban schools It’s important to
    remember, everyone wants to live IN Paris, just as you would when you
    come to Paris. The poor and immigrants are being shunted to the outskirts.
    On the other hand, this looks like a real inner-city type school. This
    mixed ethnicity, mostly of north and sub saharan African immigrants can
    be found in many of these difficult schools – I’ve been to the classes
    and seen them. I can sympathize, with the teacher who complained about a
    student who made noises all through the class. I once visited a student
    teacher who had one student in the back left making one kind of noise
    all through the lesson (middle school English), and another on the back
    right making another type of noise, not to mention the four really
    difficult kids, not working but lots of talking and negative
    attention-getting, in the front row. and a whole bunch others just not
    listening. On visits like those, I’m so happy to be the one in the back
    of the class, and not the adult in the front who is supposed to get
    something done. In some classes there can be as many as 20 different
    nationalities represented! – African, Asian, Middle Eastern, East
    European . As you can guess, if for any reason, like the fact that my
    own street is in the district of one of these schools, most parents who
    know better, get their kids out of there. For example, none of the
    parents on my street sent their kids to the school of our district.
    Either we put the kids in private school, or we get what is called a
    “derogation”, which is what I did: I sent Dexter to a private school for
    a few years, and then when I wanted to bring him back to public school,
    I got help from an inspector, who contacted the district’s head
    inspecter, whose secretary took me down to the office of the person
    herself who decides what schools the children are put into. I spent an
    hour in her office at the end of one August, until we could agree on the
    school that Dexter would attend. We must understand, this was a pretty
    privileged way of working, but everyone has to find their own way to
    navigate the system. The fact that I’m a professor at the teachers’ college, and
    know lots of people, helps.

    The “conseil de classe” , I guess we can call this an assessment
    meeting, is a very real, very well known element of the French school
    system. There are two PTA members present as well as 2 class
    representatives. On the other hand, this is considered a very important,
    serious moment in school life (there are 3, one for each quarter) and
    the students take it very seriously. I could not imagine, and I asked
    my son the question, and he could not imagine, the girls acting so silly
    with all the teachers and parents present. Their role and responsibility toward the others in the class is too important. They could not spend their time doing anything else but paying careful attention and taking notes to be able to report back to the rest of the class. And everyone wants to know what went on. The rest of the class is counting on them, and they usually feel the heavy responsibility that it is to be “delegué de classe”.

    The discussion of a point system for behaviour, was very typically
    French. And did you notice the parent complaining that there was no
    encouragement for good behaviour? The French tend to teach with negative
    reinforcement and humiliation: encouragement is rare, with a very real fear that if you tell kids they’re good, they’ll rest on their laurels and stop working.

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